Volume: 02, Issue: 12 06/16/2004 
This image, taken at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, shows engineers rehearsing Opportunity’s drive into Endurance crater. Photo courtesy NASA/JPL.
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Endurance crater. Photo courtesy NASA/JPL/Cornell.
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Other Articles in This Issue:
Planetary Times Summer Hiatus
Cassini Flies by Phoebe, Closes in on Saturn
Reagan Remembered Onboard International Space Station
Enhance Your Science Knowledge This Summer

Opportunity Dips into Endurance

NASA’s Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has been given new marching orders: dip into a crater informally named Endurance to explore the stadium-sized crater and conduct more experiments. Opportunity and its twin rover, Spirit, landed on Mars in January and have been producing a multitude of new information since then. The rovers remain healthy, though the harsh Martian environment could halt their operations at any point.

"Both rovers are starting new chapters,” said Dr. Firouz Naderi, manager of NASA's Mars Exploration Program at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. “Spirit is within a stone's throw of Columbia Hills, and Opportunity is entering [Endurance] crater."

Opportunity began its descent into the crater on June 8. "We're going in, but we're doing it cautiously," said James Erickson, new project manager for the Mars Exploration Rover project.

"NASA has made a careful decision,” added Naderi. “The potential science benefits of sending Opportunity into the crater are well worth the calculated risk the rover might not be able to climb back out. Inside the Endurance crater waits the possibility for the most compelling science investigations Opportunity could add to what it has already accomplished. We have done the ground testing necessary to evaluate the likelihood of exiting the crater afterward.”

The target for inspection within the crater is an exposure of rock layers beneath a layer that corresponds to rocks Opportunity previously examined in the shallower Eagle crater, where the rover landed in January. The sulfur-rich layer seen in Eagle yielded evidence that a body of gently flowing water once covered the area. The underlying rock layers come from an earlier period. Opportunity's observations from the rim of Endurance already have shown their composition differs from the Eagle crater's layers.

"If there was a change in rock type, there was a change in environment," said Dr. Steve Squyres of Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., the rovers' principal investigator. "This unit will tell us what came before the salty water environment the Eagle crater unit told us about. We want to get to the contact between the two units to see how the environment changed. Is it gradual? Is it abrupt? Even if the lower layers formed under dry conditions, they may have been exposed to water later. The water's effect on them could have left telltale evidence of that interaction."

One section of the target outcrop is only five to seven meters (16 to 23 feet) from the crater rim in an area dubbed Karatepe. The rover team's plan is to get there, examine the rocks for several days, and then exit the crater. Reaching lower-priority targets, like at the bottom of the crater, would entail driving on sand, with a higher risk of not getting out again.

The strategy for driving on the crater's inner slope is to keep wheels on rock surfaces instead of sand, said JPL rover-mobility engineer Randy Lindemann. The team ran trials with a test rover on a surface specifically built to simulate Karatepe's surface conditions.

"The tests indicate we have a substantial margin of safety for going up a rocky slope of 25 degrees," Lindemann said. Opportunity's observations from the rim at the top of the planned entry route show a slope of less than 20 degrees.

Spirit is also making strong strides. Launched one year ago Thursday, the rover has driven more than 3.2 kilometers (2 miles) inside the Gusev Crater. A trench it dug in May exposed soil with relatively high levels of sulfur and magnesium, reported Dr. Johannes Brueckner, of Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemie, Mainz, Germany. Spirit's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer showed concentrations of these two elements varied in parallel at different locations in the trench, suggesting they may be paired as a magnesium sulfate salt.

According to Squyres, "The most likely explanation is water percolated through the subsurface and dissolved out minerals. As the water evaporated near the surface, it left concentrated salts behind. I'm not talking about a standing body of water like we saw signs of at Eagle crater, but we also have an emerging story of subsurface water at Gusev."

JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Exploration Rover project for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. Images and additional information about the project are available from JPL at http://marsrovers.jpl.nasa.gov and from Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., at http://athena.cornell.edu .

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