Volume: 04, Issue: 08 12/14/2005 
The annual "ozone hole" over Antarctica this year reached its largest area on Sept. 11. Observations are from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument on NASA's Aura satellite, launched in 2004. Credit: NASA
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Maps from Aura's Microwave Limb Sounder instrument depicting changes in concentrations of hydrogen chloride (top), chlorine monoxide (center), and ozone (bottom) for selected days during the 2004-2005 Arctic winter. Image credit: NASA/JPL
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Other Articles in This Issue:
Challenges of Holiday Dining in Orbit
Cassini Spots Activity on Saturn Moon
Mars Exploration Rovers Continue to Amaze
Explore Science, Technology, & Space Conferences
 

AURA Satellite Zooms In on Ozone Hole

Using data from NASA’s AURA satellite, researchers have determined the seasonal ozone hole that developed over Antarctica this year is smaller than in previous years. The 2005 assessment of the size and thickness of the ozone layer was the first based on observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument on the agency's Aura spacecraft, which launched in 2004.

This year's ozone hole measured 9.4 million square miles at its peak between September and mid-October, which was slightly larger than last year's peak. The size of the ozone hole in 1998, the largest ever recorded, averaged 10.1 million square miles. For 10 of the past 12 years, the Antarctic ozone hole has been larger than 7.7 million square miles. Before 1985, it measured less than 4 million square miles.

The protective ozone layer over Antarctica annually undergoes a seasonal change, but since the first satellite measurements in 1979, the ozone hole has gotten larger. Human-produced chlorine and bromine chemicals can lead to the destruction of ozone in the stratosphere. By international agreement, these damaging chemicals were banned in 1995, and their levels in the atmosphere are decreasing.

Another important factor in how much ozone is destroyed each year is the temperature of the air high in the atmosphere. As with temperatures on the ground, some years are colder than others. When it is colder in the stratosphere, more ozone is destroyed. Because temperatures were below average, the 2005 ozone hole was approximately 386,000 square miles larger than it would have been in a normal year. Only twice in the last decade has the ozone hole shrunk to the size it typically was in the late 1980s. Those years, 2002 and 2004, were the warmest of the period.

Scientists also monitor how much ozone there is in the atmosphere from the ground to space. The thickness of the Antarctic ozone layer was the third highest of the last decade, as measured by the lowest reading recorded during the year. The level was 102 Dobson Units (the system of measurement designated to gauge ozone thickness). That is approximately one-half as thick as the layer before 1980 during the same time of year.

The Ozone Monitoring Instrument is the latest in a series of ozone-observing instruments flown by NASA over the last two decades. This instrument provides a more detailed view of ozone and is also able to monitor chemicals involved in ozone destruction.

For images or more information, visit the following websites:
http://www.nasa.gov/vision/earth/lookingatearth/ozone_five.html
http://www.nasa.gov

    
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